What is the next step in the field of heart surgery?
I think currently the artificial valves that are used are really quite beautifully designed and functioning extremely well, and work for decades. One of the areas that we're hoping for improvement will be in longevity for patients after a heart transplant. They're still a problem, and I've been out of surgery now for five years so I'm not totally updated on this, but there's still a problem with rejection of the heart after transplant.
The other major progress as I see as a development is a total artificial heart. Over the last 30 years, there (has) been a lot of research going on in the artificial heart, and we now seem to have an artificial heart that's certainly fine as a bridge to a transplant. We still, I think, are looking for a better artificial heart that can be implanted and then left as the final heart.